The Self-Interactional Group Theory (SIGT) explains the relational/interactional nature of relations.  Relationships are viewed as the reciprocal, continuous communicative interactions between people.  From a pragmatic perspective, focus enables observation and description of different units of the relational interactions, namely the intra-individual, inter-individual, and group units of analysis.  The three units of analysis are the intra-individual, inter-individual and the group, against the interpersonal context, embedded in broader environments:

The Mmogo-method® is a visual data-collection-method.  Participants are involved in a group ranging from 6 to 10 people.  They use unstructured materials (malleable clay, beads of different sizes and colours, and dried grass stalks, or substitute materials serving the same purpose) to construct visual representations.  Visual representations are stimulated by an open-ended prompt which participants explain and which serve as stimuli for group members to augment the discussion.  The visual representations are photographed and used as visual data while the individual and group’s discussions are audio or video recorded, transcribed verbatim, and serve as textual data.  Observational data are obtained by observing individual and group members’ non-verbal behaviour and interactions.

SIGT Articles

Mmogo-method® Articles

Articles in which the Mmogo-method® are described:

Cell phone usage relational regulation strategies of older South Africans. Steyn, S., Roos, V., & Botha KHF (2018). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 28(3), 201-205

Respect in intergenerational relationships: Young adult women’s motivations. L v Biljon, V Roos, & O’Reilly, S. (2019). Journal of Intergenerational Relationships 17(1), 25-41.

Young female adults’ experiences of their relationships with older people: The Mmogo-method®. Roos, V., van Biljon, L., & Carstens, U. (2019). Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(2), 556-572.  doi: 10.1177/0265407517735913

Loneliness experiences of older black South African women subjected to forcible relocation. Roos, V., Keating, N.K., & Kahl, C. (2019). Global Health Action, 12(1), 1672329.doi. 10.1080/16549716.2019.1672329

Intergenerational care perceptions of older women and middle adolescents in a resource-constrained community in South Africa. Roos, V., Silvestre, S., & De Jager, T. (2017). Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 60(2), 104 – 119.

Young female adults’ experiences of their relationships with older people: The Mmogo-method®. Roos, V., van Biljon, L., & Carstens, U. (2017)  Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1 – 17.  doi: 10.1177/0265407517735913

Active Ageing as Positive Intervention: Some Unintended Consequences.  In C Proctor (2017). Roos, V. & Zaaiman, R. (2017). Positive psychology interventions in practice, 47-64. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. (Chapter in book, pp 47-64).

Articles in which the Mmogo-method® were applied:

Older people’s experiences of giving and receiving empathy in relation to middle adolescents in rural South Africa. Roos, V. & Wheeler, A. (2016). South African Journal of Psychology, 1 – 13.

Mental Health Workers’ coping strategies in dealing with continuous secondary trauma. Keyter, A.E. & Roos, V. (2015). Social Work/Practioner, 27(3), 365 – 382.

First-Time mothers’ experiences of meaningfulness during their third trimester of pregnancy: A focus on spirituality. Redelinghuys, A., Coetzee, H., & Roos, V. (2014). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(3), 246. 251.

(Re)creating community: Experiences of older women forcibly relocated during Apartheid. Roos, V., Kolobe, P. S., & Keating, N. (2014). Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 24(1), 12-25.

Older adults’ coping with adversities in an African context: A Spiritual-informed relational perspective. Roos, V. (2013). In M. P. Wissing (Ed.). Well-being research in South Africa.  Cross-cultural advancements in positive psychology, 341-354. New York, NY: Springer.

Relational coping strategies of older black adults with drought in an rural African context. Roos, V., Chigeza, S., & Van Niekerk, D. (2013). In M. P. Wissing (Ed.). Well-being research in South Africa. Cross-cultural advancements in positive psychology, 375-388. New York, NY: Springer.

“…Here we help each other”: Sense of community of people who were subjected to forced removals. Chigeza, S., Roos, V., & Puren, K. (2013). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(1), 97-100.

An exploration of the experiences of older persons in an economically deprived residential care facility. Shabangu, T. R., & Roos, V. (2012). Social Work Researcher/Practitioner, 24(2),210-228.

Psychosocial experiences of coloured grandmothers who are the primary care givers of their grandchildren. Grobler, H. & Roos, V. (2012). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 22(4), 629-633.

The role of context and the interpersonal experiences of loneliness of older people in a residential care facility. Roos, V., & Malan, L. (2012) Global Health Action, 5: 

The resilience of illegal African migrants in South Africa: A relational perspective. Chigeza, S., & Roos, V.  (2011). Australian Community Psychologist Special Resilience, 23(2), 121-134.

Coping with drought: Indigenous Knowledge application in rural South Africa. Roos, V., Chigeza, S., & Van Niekerk, D. (2010). Indigilinga: African Journal of Indigenous knowledge systems, 9(1), 1-11.

Older women’s subjective experience of loneliness –  Applying the Mmogo-method®Roos, V., & De Jager, L. (2010). Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe.[Journal for Humanities], 50(1), 15-30.

Positive adaptation in a community of postgraduate students: Applying the Mmogo-method®Roos, V., & Strong, G. (2010).  Journal of Psychology in Africa, 20(1), 85-92.

Processes and functions in Higher Education students adjusting to a new learning environment:  Applying The Mmogo-method®Roos, V., Maine, M.K., & Khumalo, I.P. (2008). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 18(2), 293-300.

Expressive art in cross-cultural group supervision: applying the Mmogo-method®. Roos, V., & Ferreira, L. (2008). Journal of Psychology in Africa, 18(4), 581-590.

An Exploration of Sense of Place as informative for Spatial Planning Guidelines: A Case Study of the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site. Puren, K., Drewes, E., & Roos, V.  (2007). Peer-reviewed Conference Proceedings. WASET (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology).  Proceedings Vol. 22, July 2007.  XXII International Conference on Computer, Electrical, and Systems Science, and Engineering CESSE 2007, 27-29 July 2007,  Prague, Czech Republic, 217-224.

Community competence. Roos, V., & Temane, Q.M. (2007). In N. Duncan, A. Naidoo, J. Pillay, & V Roos. (Eds.). Community Psychology: Analysis, context and action, 280-292.  Cape Town, South Africa:  UCT Press.